The Holocaust essay

The Holocaust was a horrific that scarred, traumatized, and killed thousands of millions of people because of the decisions, thoughts, and ideas of one man. Adolf Hitler believed the ideology that only Northern Europeans, or the Aryan race as he called it, deserved human rights, dignity and respect. Everyone else, not only Jews, but Africans, Poles, Gypsies, handicapped and mentally disabled people, homosexuals, and many others were erased from the face of the Earth during Hitler’s time as the Füher. In total, about 13 million people were killed by the hand of many followers of Hitler, from the SS officers to the Gestapo and the Hitler Youth. There were countless possibilities to get killed, from arguing with the German Police to trying to run away from the SS. The people that were targeted were in continuous fear of getting captured by the Germans and once found, they were in constant tortured and eventually lead to death. Many tried to avoid getting captured by hiding, but were in grave danger if they were ever caught. Many believed what the Germans said about ‘relocation’ and were eventually killed. Many took the risk and complied with the new rules that their new leaders place, but only a small percentage survived, which are now seen as heroes filled with bravery and courage. One of these people was Nonna Bannister, who even though she wasn’t Jewish, she was still persecuted and still survived the war. As stated beforehand, the main target for assasination was the Jewish race, but there were many other people that were persecuted during this time of mass execution, which in the case of Nonna Bannister, also included people from Russia. Nonna Lisowskaja-Bannister was born on September 22, 1927 in Taganrog, Russia. Her mother, Anna, was from Russia and her father, Yevgeny, was Polish. She had a very close connection to her family members from her mother’s side. She grew up with her aunts, uncles, and grandmother, which really affected her when Russia was at war with Germany later on. She never met any of her father’s family and she was never told if Yevgeny was Jewish or not, which might of lead to her family falling into the hands of the Nazis. She lived with her two parents and her brother, Anatoly, which she loved dearly. Her family was wealthy, so they owned lots of land throughout Russia, which leads to the fact that all her family members were born in different parts of the country. For example, her uncle, Leonid, was born in what’s now the Ukraine, while another one of her uncles, Zhenya, was born in Konstantinovka. Despite these differences, her family always had her grandmother, Feodosjia, house as where everyone would meet. One of the countless memories Nonna kept from before the war was when her entire family would celebrate Christmas at The Great House, as it was called, and all the food and fun that she would have with everyone. She also cared deeply about Petrovich, the housekeeper. He always worked on maintaining The Great House and Feodosjia made sure he had the best, from building a house just for him to treating him like one of her own sons. Nonna also had a love for music and the arts. She loved hearing Anna play the piano and violin and she always danced at a nearby stage by her school when she had a chance. She also liked painting as a child, along with playing chess and learning languages. By the time she was five, she knew how to speak German, Yiddish, and Polish, thanks to her father and his vast knowledge of languages. She was a really good student and she was very well rounded in all aspects. All these good times and wonderful traits she had were vital to her happiness, and once Germany started to threaten Russia, this is when all the good times were going to disappear and be gone. Even before Nonna was born, the Bolshevik revolution was tearing Russia apart as Tsar Nicholas II tries to lead the country while being the target for assasination. After the Tsar died, Russia fell to communism, but didn’t feel the effects of it until after Nonna was born. As time passed, Nonna’s family lost almost everything – all their land was taken away and now all they have it The Great House. Rumors of the war arrive in the country and everyone started to take some steps in order to prepare. Schools have drills and shelters are built. Air raid sirens are installed and they practice regularly. In Nonna’s family, everyone comes to live in The Great House, which was an enormous house that is unbelievably big. It had 37 rooms, which was big enough to hold all 35 of her relatives and Petrovich, which his house was taken away and the family was forced to lie about him in order to keep him as a housekeeper. But soon after, her mother and father decided to take measures to keep the family together. Nonna, with her parents and brother, move to Santurinowka, but soon move back to the Great House. Soon after, Germany invades Poland and the war starts. There is now a sense of fear everywhere Nonna went and she was confused with all the conversations her family has and what she hears around her. Anatoly is sent to a university in St. Petersburg in order to avoid the draft and Nonna is left heartbroken. He comes back to celebrate the last Christmas with the rest of the family, which is the last time the family will ever be in a reunion ever again. After Anatoly leaves, Anna gives birth to Nonna’s sister, Tassia, who dies five days later due to hepatitis and the Germans finally reach Russian soil. Many people try to evacuate Russia to avoid the bombs and Jews come into Russia and the Ukraine, and from there to Siberia. Yevgeny decides to stay with Feodosjia in the Great House, which has been heavily bombed and destroyed, and hide until the Nazi soldiers leave Russia. Nonna and her mother leave to a more rural area until her father comes and gets them. Before he had a chance, he was found in hiding and he was brutally beat and almost killed. His eyes were taken out and his head was very swollen by the time he arrived to where Nonna was with the help of her mother and grandmother, but thankfully, he was conscious and Nonna did anything she could to keep her father as happy as possible, from looking for breakfast for him to keeping him company when her mom was away looking for food. Even though he went through such a horrifying experience, he still remained as the caring, loving man he was and he is able to stay alive for about six more weeks. He was recovering, but two German soldiers went to where Nonna and her father was and demanded for food. She said she didn’t have any and they started to destroyed what they could – they kicked doors and broke walls. They saw Yevgeny and had a savage look in their eyes. Nonna screamed out, “ Er ist mein Vater, und er ist tot ”, which translates to ‘He is my father and he is dead.’ They didn’t believe her and right then and there, one of them took out a knife and stabbed Yevgeny in the chest, which officially killed him. Nonna stood there, shook and shocked and didn’t know how to react. After the bloody attack, they complimented how well she spoke German, apologised for what they did, and left. She just stayed there, in silence and terror until Anna and Feodosjia came back from looking for food and she started to sob violently. He afterwards wrote a poem dedicated to her father and then they had a funeral, despite the frozen ground, extremely cold temperatures, and lack of people. Shortly after, Nonna, her mother and her grandmother all go back to The Great House until an opportunity pops up to go work in factories in Germany. Even though it was hard, Nonna and Anna went to go work while they left Feodosjia protecting the house, and they never see eachother again. Now, Nonna and her mother start the life of working and surviving in Germany. In order to stay together, both Nonna and her mom had to lie about their ages, so now, even though Nonna was 14, she changed her age to 16 and her mother went from 36 to 33. In the fall of 1942, they arrive at the camp, but another major event that impacted Nonna happened on the way to Germany. While still in Poland on their way to their destination, a woman throws a bundle to the train car and says, “ Please, oh please, save my baby – give her a Russian name !” This was a Jewish woman who threw her child into the train in order to save it. Since Russians were treated better than other minority groups, you had a higher chance of survival. Anna caught the baby girl and everyone started to argue what to do. They were inspected to make sure everything was in check before leaving Russia and some said to make up a story in order to protect the baby and let her have a chance to live, while others argued that they should just hand her in – there were many insults and disagreements on what to do. Either way, everyone took turns caring for her and tried to give her a name. Everyone called her Sarah, but Nonna’s mother insisted that they called her Taissia, which was her dead daughter’s name. This went on until they arrived in Germany and were going to be taken off of the traincar. Anna still had Sarah and Nonna started to be afraid on what might happen. Once they came off, a woman yelled out, “ It’s a Jew – the Jewish woman threw it into our car at the last stop ! ” The German soldier motion towards Nonna’s mother to get the baby, but she wasn’t giving it to them. They took Sarah by force and she was taken to an SS officer. From there, Sarah was killed right in front of everyone as the SS officer grabbed the baby and broke her back, leaving her dead. Nonna started to throw up and Anna was saying “ They killed my Taissia, my sweet baby. ” Memories like this stayed with Nonna as a remembrance never to forget. Once they arrived in Germany, they go through 3 years suffering together while working and living under constant threat of the Germans. They survive several events, including Nonna almost getting shot for giving a little Jewish boy a piece of bread. They work in a labor camp, porcelain factory, and a textile factory before getting transferred to a Catholic hospital thanks to Nonna’s knowledge of several languages. During their stay there, the work isn’t took hard and life gets easier for Nonna and her mother. What starts to get concerning is when Anna becomes acquaintances with one of the main doctors at the hospital and he starts to threaten her sexually. Anna starts to distance herself, but the doctor starts to get desperate and talks with her every chance he gets. To avoid any more problems, Nonna and Anna are moved to a German hospital and things ease off for a while. A couple of months later, Anna has to appear to the Gestapo and she tells Nonna not to worry. She never comes back and days later, Nonna goes to find herself what happened, but her request was rejected. She later gets a letter stating that she now has to perform for the Germans by playing violin and piano along with singing on a regular basis. Nonna is terrified on what will happened to her mother, since after a while, its the soldiers that is writing for Anna, since the Germans injured her after she said that she is not in the conditions to perform and she is now in a concentration camp in Bohemia for unknown reasons. Four weeks before the end of the war, she is diagnosed with rheumatic fever and myocarditis, which is an inflammation of the heart muscle. She hospitalized for another two years after the war, in which that time, she finds out that her mother died right before her camp was liberated, but didn’t find out until months after the war was over. She got Anna’s last letter and a note from one of her friends, motivating Nonna to move on and to stay strong. She was so shocked and overwhelmed that she fainted and lost the letter during the time she was asleep. Nonna kept moving from place to place trying to find any information about her mother. By the time she was fully recovered from her illnesses, she was convinced that out of her 35 family members, she was the only one that survived. Her father died right in front of her three years before, her mom died in a concentration camp, she never saw Anatoly or Feodosjia ever again, and she later found out that her aunts, uncles, and cousins died on the last train from Russia to escape from a bombing. Petrovich was on his way to get coal when he was taken to do hard labor for the Germans and never came back to The Great House, which happened years ago. She was going to study to become a nurse, but then decided to travel to America. With the help of a friend from the hospital, she got a visa, moved to the United States, married Henry Bannister, and lived happily leaving her past behind her as long as possible until her death on August 15, 2004. Throughout her life after the war, Nonna tried to forget her past and live in the present in a new life in America. She got married, had 3 children, and to seem as happy as possible. Henry noticed that she didn’t talk much about her childhood and he asked, but Nonna refused to say anything. She had a locked chest in the attic and would let nobody see what’s inside. Once they have reached old age, Nonna thought it was time to tell the world what she went through and she finally opened the chest and showed it to Henry. What he found was pages and pages of a diary of when Nonna was a young girl during the war, official letters and other documents that shocked Henry. He saw how much his wife has been hurt and read the horrors she faced. After Nonna’s death, they organized, recopied and published Nonna’s experiences in a book called The Secret Holocaust Diaries – The Untold Story of Nonna Bannister, which talks about all these terrifying events she went through during World War Two. Throughout this story, I see that she has learned many things that has helped her move on that can teach others and inspire them. Such lessons learned are having patience, forgiveness, and perseverance. She always stayed the caring, kind person she was before the war and she never hated anyone, not even the Germans, the very people who wanted to kill her and the rest of her family. She also never gave up trying to survive – she always used her knowledge to help her survive, such as when she took advantage of the job at the hospital to have a better opportunity to survive for both herself and her mother. In conclusion, the Holocaust was a time of horrendous actions taken to kill the Jewish, and many millions of people died in this genocide. We mourn those who died and cared for those still alive today. We can learn from stories from survivors such as Nonna and try to avoid another circumstance such as this one. As you can see, even with all this violence and war, Nonna survived this terrible time period and now we can learn from her example that even though you can be hurt, injured or troubled, you can still have the patience to move on and the comparison to forgive others.

Goals in life

There are various inspiring stories that many people would like to share when it’s time to write a college application, but those people hesitate and just don’t share their experiences. When the time comes to make my college essay, without one major story, I would feel like I’m handing in an empty sheet of paper. Many people, including myself, wish to have a future in which they will love but some of those people don’t have the skills necessary to accomplish goals they would like to reach. Due to the opportunities and advantages I have as a student, I think that my dream of becoming a professional musician in the future will become a reality. In order to be able to do any job, not just becoming a musician, a person must have experiences from early childhood about the area of study they would want to contribute to and with those experiences is where appreciation for a specific field of study comes from. When it comes to music, my first encounter was very minor – my mother worked for a well-known string making company, D’Addario, and her job was to check the strings being processed and to make sure they meet the standards of a well-made string. I had the wrong idea when she explained what she did for a living; I thought that she played string instruments and I would beg her to take my to work with her so I could learn also. Those early memories affected my thoughts later on. When I was a little older, my father bought a violin and he was dedicated to try to teach himself how to play. He gave up after a while and the violin was then left alone, unplayed. I, as a seven-year-old, decided to take it as my own and I would play random notes, even though I knew that whatever I was doing was probably wrong. The violin broke weeks after and my parents made no attempt to fix it, which made me deeply upset – I was having so much fun doing nonsense that I didn’t want to lose the first instrument that I ever owned. I got over that incident and I continued my regular school life until I was presented my first official music opportunity. In the third grade, I joined the school chorus and I resumed to music. I remained in the chorus throughout the year and when fourth grade arrived, I was interested in joining the school band. At first glance, I wasn’t all that excited, but since I was going to be the only person playing the Baritone ( also known as the Euphonium ), I was sympathetic about it and decided to play the instrument, even though I really didn’t want to play it. I learned the basics and I caught on pretty quickly and four months later, I was informed about my biggest opportunity. There was going to be free string lessons that were going to take place in my school and it was sponsored by the D’Addario factory, the place where my mother worked at. I got really excited, but I couldn’t choose the instrument I wanted to play, and as little children always do, I would have chosen all of them, due to their natural curiosity. While I was doing some research about the three instruments they were offering, the violin, viola, and cello, I found some information about Yo-Yo Ma, one of the best cellists in the world. Since then, I was determined to be just like him, well-known and good at what he does. But, unfortunately, I had some opposition to start playing the cello. My parents didn’t want me to play another instrument; they thought it was too much for a young girl like me. Another obstacle was the program itself. The opportunity was open to only students attending the third grade and I was in fourth grade at the time. After I convince my parents, they went to sign up, but the people that were giving out the applications denied the chance of letting them apply. I was about to lose the chance to play a second instrument. That’s when my mother was informed about the fact that whoever had children attending Deauville Gardens Elementary School that worked at the factory could apply for the program, regardless of the grade their kids were in. That helped me get in the program, and it began my permanent relationship with music. As time went on and I learned more about the instruments I played, I became more curious and less patient for waiting for other. I never complained, but since I was taught the basics of music during my school lessons, the lessons for cello after school became a review of what I have just learned. So, while others were learning how to read the notes, I was ready to play songs on the cello and was anxious to answer questions, knowing that what I was going to say was correct. As teachers began to notice, they tried to challenge me as much as they could, but due to the amount of time the class lasted and since others needed constant assistance, I couldn’t advance until everyone else was up to the ability I was. I believe this is part of the reason I am where I am when it comes to my lack of abilities, but my teachers were patient and I understood that I had to be patient just like them, and I followed their example. I rarely practiced either, which also contributed to the lack of skill that I have. After around three years of playing, I was presented with the All-Star Orchestra of the Harmony Program, the program that D’Addario was helping with funds to make this opportunity possible. It was my first time auditioning for an orchestra that was higher than my playing level and due to my low playing ability, I failed to pass the first round of auditions and that’s when I started to practices at least 10 minutes to get better at my playing. That time I dedicated to playing cello payed off when there was a small contest where I had to fill out an application and from there, the directors of the program would choose one person to get a full scholarship to attend the Usdan Summer Camp for the Arts. I filled out the application and I, surprisingly, got the scholarship. I had an interview done by reporters of Newsday and it was published on the local paper. I was excited, but I was nervous on what to expect. I also was going to be a part of the Harmony Program summer classes and I would have to learn two different sets of music and immediately after summer camp, I would have to go to the two-hour summer lessons, which totaled up nine hours of music instruction – the most amount of time I ever studied music up to that point. At Usdan, it was way more advanced that what I was used to and I had to really practice my music in order to be able to play it. Kids younger than me were playing the same music I was with so much ease and style, which showed me that I had a lot to learn from others. I practiced my music with the patience I’ve learned before and by concert time, I felt confident and ready to play. While all this was happening with my cello playing, I also had success in chorus and band. I tried out for the Chamber Chorus, but didn’t get in the first time, but I took advantage of the next auditions in the beginning of 2016, which was the year I got in, which I felt was a impressive accomplishment at the time, even though there were others than were better than me. I did NYSSMA, which stands for New York State School Music Association, for both voice and Baritone and I got higher than a 25 out of 28 on both solos. Now that I am a more advanced player, there are more opportunities available and harder music to learn. I got into SCMEA this year, which stands for Suffolk County Music Educators’ Association, which is another proud achievement I have earned. For cello, I am auditioning for orchestras that if I get in, I would have to travel out of state, such as the National Take a Stand program, and there is one youth orchestra that is offered by the the Juilliard School of Music, which is the school/ college I would like to attend after high school. One thing has become clear – I won’t be able to get to enjoy any of these music groups without practice and dedication. Many people take pride in their talents and try to show off their skills as much as possible, but music isn’t only about performing at concert halls and earning lots of money. For any job, there has to be a reason why would a career matter to anyone and for what purposes does someone chooses one job over another. As said by many people who listen to music not just for fun, music is an emotional thing and even though it’s an art form, it’s not easy to have musical talent right from the start. Music takes time to master and one key ingredient needed to have success in the music industry in passion. Even our modern rappers and pop artists have some sort of passion that inspires them to continue. In classical music, which is the music I usually play on cello, the composers who made pieces and symphonies had inspiration, from older musicians to sound heard from just about anywhere. This love and passion that the composers put into their works rub on to their players, which I think was my case. Lots of people that see me play say that I’m such a good player and that I should continue my musical studies, but just being able to play on an instrument is only part of the whole thing. I say that a musician shouldn’t be judged only by how hard a song is or what is required to play a certain piece. I say that they should also be judged by the passion put into what they do; in other words, how much effort they put into their final product. The passion of the player and their skill go hand-in-hand and when these two pieces work together, what you get is a dedicated player performing not just a hard piece with their physical movements – they do it with all the effort that they can possibly put and I believe that is what makes a good musician. I care about this ideology and even though I’m not the best cellist, I think that this is seen throughout my playing. I am grateful for the Harmony Program and all their support in helping me find this passion and the fact that I never had to pay absolutely nothing, which makes this program more special in helping me find my career path for the future. In conclusion, I believe that music is my set direction for my life ahead of me and that this story – about how I was introduced to music and all its components – would be necessary when it comes into getting to the music college I want to go to in my future. This information, along with the events that will happen in the future, will help shape my path for the upcoming years and if I continue with this motivation, my goals will be reached and my objectives will be met.

The 5 Phases of the Project Lifecycle

The Project Life Cycle is a framework that is followed by nearly all project managers there are five phases that will occur in order for a project to reach project completion. A project can be defined as a “temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result” (Meredith, Mantel, and Shafer 2014). Using this framework will allow for successful management of a project within a business. Research has shown that following a project life cycle and the processes that are contained within it are critical for an organization. Contained within the project life cycle are these five phases. Initiating process groups, planning process groups, executing process groups, monitoring and controlling process groups, and closing process groups. In the following paragraphs, I will cover these five process and also provide examples of each of them. Phase 1, initiating process groups, also known as the conceptualization phase. In order for this phase to begin there must be a strategic need recognized by upper management for the service or project. Within this phase, the project charter will be created. This project charter will essentially be an overview of the entire project. High level details of the requirements of the project, risks, budget, key players and stakeholders, etc. Too and Weaver (2014) conclude that effective project management will clearly define the goal of the project as well as an agreement between the project manager and the organization. An example of this would be an IT project being presented to the upper management of an IT firm. Phase 2, planning process groups, or more commonly referred to as the planning phase. At this point management has given the okay to launch a project and some of the high-level details in phase 1 will need to be ironed out further in this phase. PMI (2017) states that the scope of the project will be established and clearly defined. The overall mission and purpose of the project will be communicated to stakeholders once stakeholders have been fully identified. The project team must begin to think if there is a way that we can measure success of the project and the objectives? Within phase 2 it is crucial to determine the availability of resources and create a budget for the project. An example of this would the scope of the IT project is defined as only happening to the desktops of the IT firm and not laptops. Phase 3, executing process groups, also known as the execution phase. This is the phase in which the project will “start” and the project work will begin. In this phase, it is important coordinate the correct people with the correct resources, ensure that the stakeholder expectation is being met, and confirm that the project is being worked on in a matter that is in accordance with the project management plan. While the project is being executed the project, manager can now adjust the duration of certain activities as he deems fit based on the progress that the project team is making. An example of this would be the IT project manager having communications with the project team to ensure that they are in compliance with the project plan. Phase 4, monitoring and controlling process group. In this phase, the work on the projected is still be done. This phase is critical in stopping any issues or problems from happening through preventative action. In this phase, Alecu (2011) states that the work that is being done by the project team will continually be measured against the project management plan to ensure that the project is not at risk for being derailed. The monitoring that is done is this phase allows for continuous improvement to occur while the project is taking place. An example of this would be the IT Project Manager connecting with the stakeholders to notify them they the project will be coming in right at budget. Phase 5, the closing process group, or termination phase. As one would assume this phase of the project beings once the project has been completed. In this phase of the project the project team is disbanded, the personnel that were assigned to the project will be delegated to commit their time to new tasks, any resources that were brought on board to the project will be released back to the parent organization, and ultimately the project will be handed off to the intended users. An example of this would the completion of the IT project and HR resources that were pulled in can commit all their time to their HR duties. References ALECU, F. (2011). Managing software development projects, the project management process. Oeconomics of Knowledge, 3(3), 26. Retrieved from Meredith, J. R., Mantel, S. J., & Shafer, S. M. (2014). Project management: A managerial approach (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN: 9781118947029 Project Management Institute. (2013). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (5th ed.). Newton Square, PA: PMI Publications. ISBN-13: 9781935589679 Too, E., & Weaver, P. (2014). The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project governance International Journal of Project Management 32.

Citizens Bank

To begin, we first look at the company and its subsidiaries, Citizens Bank, N.A., formerly known as RBS Citizens Bank, N.A.; Citizens Financial Group, Inc., formerly known as RBS Citizens Financial Group, Inc., and Citizens Bank of Pennsylvania. The bank operates retail branches in about a dozen states and among its various products and services are deposit accounts. For the period at issue, the bank generally required its customers making a deposit to fill out a slip listing the checks or cash being deposited, and their total. The customer then turned the deposit slip over to the bank and got a receipt reflecting the amount on the deposit slip for the transaction. The bank scanned the deposit slip and deposit items at a central location. Over the years, Citizens Bank has often denied consumers the full amount of their deposits when there were discrepancies between deposits and the actual money transferred into the bank. They would only investigate and fix errors when they were above a certain threshold. From January 2008 to September 2012, discrepancies greater than $50 and from September 2012 to November 2013, discrepancies greater than $25. Additionally, the bank told consumers that deposits were subject to verification, implying that the bank would take steps to ensure consumers were credited with the correct deposit amount. But it did not verify and correct deposit inaccuracies unless they were above the $25 or $50 threshold. The CFPB investigation suggests that from January 1, 2008, to November 30, 2013, by doing this, Citizens Bank violated the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act’s prohibition on unfair and deceptive practices. In my opinion, the bank acted as they did because they noticed that they were getting away with this scanning mistake and making money out of it, unnoticed. Probably, $50 seemed like a small amount to a giant corporation like Citizens Bank. But how they acted indicates that there was a wide range of errors and mistakes and abuses of practice. By ignoring the discrepancies, and its own policies on how to handle these discrepancies the bank ultimately harmed the consumers. There were various actions taken against Citizens Bank. They were ordered to pay approximated $11 million in consumer refunds while the consumers do not have to take any action to receive this credit. Further, they were asked to pay a $7.5 million civil penalty to CFPB, $10 million to the OCC and FDIC separately fined them $3 million. Citizens Bank was also asked to end all violations of federal consumer financial law in connection with deposit discrepancies. Thus, paying $20.5 million in civil penalties to regulatory agencies. In my opinion, the regulation agencies acted in the way they did because they recognized the malpractice of Citizens Bank after the investigation and frankly, under the Dodd-Frank Act, they have the authority to take action against institutions engaging in unfair, deceptive, or abusive practices. Moreover, they did this hoping that in the future the consumers are treated fairly by not only Citizens Bank but other banks as well.

Citizens Bank

To begin, we first look at the company and its subsidiaries, Citizens Bank, N.A., formerly known as RBS Citizens Bank, N.A.; Citizens Financial Group, Inc., formerly known as RBS Citizens Financial Group, Inc., and Citizens Bank of Pennsylvania. The bank operates retail branches in about a dozen states and among its various products and services are deposit accounts. For the period at issue, the bank generally required its customers making a deposit to fill out a slip listing the checks or cash being deposited, and their total. The customer then turned the deposit slip over to the bank and got a receipt reflecting the amount on the deposit slip for the transaction. The bank scanned the deposit slip and deposit items at a central location. Over the years, Citizens Bank has often denied consumers the full amount of their deposits when there were discrepancies between deposits and the actual money transferred into the bank. They would only investigate and fix errors when they were above a certain threshold. From January 2008 to September 2012, discrepancies greater than $50 and from September 2012 to November 2013, discrepancies greater than $25. Additionally, the bank told consumers that deposits were subject to verification, implying that the bank would take steps to ensure consumers were credited with the correct deposit amount. But it did not verify and correct deposit inaccuracies unless they were above the $25 or $50 threshold. The CFPB investigation suggests that from January 1, 2008, to November 30, 2013, by doing this, Citizens Bank violated the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act’s prohibition on unfair and deceptive practices. In my opinion, the bank acted as they did because they noticed that they were getting away with this scanning mistake and making money out of it, unnoticed. Probably, $50 seemed like a small amount to a giant corporation like Citizens Bank. But how they acted indicates that there was a wide range of errors and mistakes and abuses of practice. By ignoring the discrepancies, and its own policies on how to handle these discrepancies the bank ultimately harmed the consumers. There were various actions taken against Citizens Bank. They were ordered to pay approximated $11 million in consumer refunds while the consumers do not have to take any action to receive this credit. Further, they were asked to pay a $7.5 million civil penalty to CFPB, $10 million to the OCC and FDIC separately fined them $3 million. Citizens Bank was also asked to end all violations of federal consumer financial law in connection with deposit discrepancies. Thus, paying $20.5 million in civil penalties to regulatory agencies. In my opinion, the regulation agencies acted in the way they did because they recognized the malpractice of Citizens Bank after the investigation and frankly, under the Dodd-Frank Act, they have the authority to take action against institutions engaging in unfair, deceptive, or abusive practices. Moreover, they did this hoping that in the future the consumers are treated fairly by not only Citizens Bank but other banks as well.

Personal Language

The way you speak and how you’ve come to speak in that manner are divergent to anyone else. Have you ever realized that even the people that have grown up and live in the same setting as you such as family, still speak differently? The reason for this is that each individual person learns and processes their vocabulary in a unique way, also known as personal language. Personal language is composed of a variety of things, including jargon, slang, regionalism, etc. The experiences people have lived affect this as well. For instance, my schooling, the places I have spent time in, the people I have communicated with, and the new slang that has sparked up all affect the way I speak compared to someone with a completely different background. My personal language has developed over my entire lifespan and continues changing as my vocabulary keeps expanding. The popular slang that has begun to surround us by millenials/teenagers has also become a part of the way I speak since it is the generation I am growing up in and mostly engaging with. Slang is informal words or phrases that social age members use to establish group identity. Although my maturity is greater than most young adults my age, I often still tend to talk similar as them. Phrases such as “OMG”, “OTP”, and “GTG” are just a few of the very many slang abbreviations I use in my everyday life when communicating with friends over text messaging and social media. Slang type phrases I say in face-to-face communication I usually don’t even realize are considered slang such as “for real”- a proclamation of honesty. With having slang in my personal language, I also have different types of dialects. For example, some of the phrases I say have more of a southern dialect while others have a Hispanic dialect. Dialect is a specific way of speaking that is found in peculiar regions. When I talk normally I would say I do not have an accent of either southern or Hispanic dialects though. An accent is different from a dialect because an accent is the distinction of a person’s pronunciation of a language based off of their locality or heritage whereas a dialect can be explained as a form of language. Since accents are all around me, some of the ways people say certain words in their accent have been added to my vocabulary. Although this is mostly in a joking way, it is possible that I’ll say things in a fake accent without noticing it. Jargonism has found its way into the way I speak too! The jargon I use is mostly from cheerleading and school. When I say school jargon, it is mostly things like “third period”, or talk about school supplies, classes, etc. But since I use these phrases and words because of school and I can occasionally say them outside of the school building I believe they can fit into the jargon definition. Many of the things I say that I have gotten from doing cheer are “tumbling”, “stunts”, and “chant”. I would have never known or used these words if it weren’t for me actually doing the actions these words define. But, If I were to say “You are tumbling over backwards,” it is a type of idiom. An idiom is words or phrases that cannot be translated literally; meaning that the person I said this to isn’t actually doing a backwards flip. Idioms are such a huge part of everyone’s personal language for the purpose of sarcasm or humor. I use idioms so frequently because of my sarcastic attitude. Idioms are in so many phrases that people use in everyday life like “I have butterflies in my stomach!” When I speak, I have such a huge variety or wording including connotative and regionalism. Connotative words or phrases are the emotional meaning that certain words mean to me. The way these words are in my personal language or how they have become important to me and give me a connection to something. The feeling that I get from certain words can be anything like happiness, anger, sadness, or even confusion. Many of these connotative words and phrases have become so meaningful to me because of the experiences I’ve had at some of the best and worst times and places in my life. Regionalism has been where the same thing can be said in different ways depending on the region. Regionalism is so frequently used in the way I talk because I have visited Texas so much and have communicated with family members from different states like Georgia and California. Television is also a factor in this! There are so many different ways to say things like hi including “sup”, “howdy’, and “yo.” Each and every one of these factors: Jargon, Slang, Dialect, Connotative, Regionalism, Accent, and Idioms, are such a huge part of my personal language as well as everyone else’s. This is because the main part of the way you speak is how you say the words, the meaning of them, and how they fit together. I never realized that these things make communicating so effective in texting and face-to-face conversations. I thought of all the places I’ve learned new words and their meaning, how many different people with unique languages I’ve communicated with, and all the different ways I can interact using different techniques of these categories. Personal language is the main thing that separates people in different regions, whether these regions be neighborhoods, towns, states, or countries. Each person’s own ‘Personal Language Journey and Meaning‘ is distinct and special to them because all of the different experiences and interactions they’ve had!

Usage of Opioids

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the usage of Opioids while evaluating various factors of concern surrounding it and the ongoing debate about whether it should be used regulated more to negate its abuse. First, I explore research on the addictive properties of opiates and conclude that while they are addictive in nature, there are some limitations in who they will likely cause addiction. I then list the substitutions available in the place of opiates but find that none match its effectiveness. As well as considering the side-effects of opiates, and how they affect the users of them. Finally, we discuss the wide abuse of these medications and how we are combating this issue. Conclusively, there are valid concerns about using opioids and the risks that follow by doing so, but there are also important reasons that we continue to do so. As with many things, the answer isn’t black and white, it is gray. (Disclaimer: Opioid/Opiate are used interchangeably but pertain to the same drug) Opiate Usage: The Debate to Further Restrictions Richard Nixon famously coined the term “the war on drugs,” as a policy statement to fight the importation and use of illicit drugs. While this mostly focused on other forms of drugs, a more current war on drugs is being taken place against Opioids. Opioids are substances that focus on the blockage of the opioid receptors and greatly reduce pain. Opiates are used to create powerful drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, and morphine. In recent years, these drugs have become more commonplace in illicit use and have become a worldwide crisis. Within this paper, I will discuss the pros and cons of Opioids in the following areas: addiction, pain relief, side-effects, and abuse. One of the biggest concerns of opiate usage is its addictive properties. As with any medication that provides a euphoric feeling to the user, the risk of addiction is high. This becomes concerning when considering the dangers that are brought forth by physical addiction, such as withdrawal symptoms that can lead to serious psychological and physical problems. According to MedlinePlus (2011), examples of withdrawal symptoms include: restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps, and involuntary leg movements; and most concerning, respiratory depression, which causes breathing to stop and can lead to death (MedlinePlus, 2011, p. 9). The danger of withdrawal is apparent when speaking of opiates, yet it is important to mention those most likely to get addicted are those who have already struggled with previous addiction. In a study conducted by Edlund (2007), fifteen thousand veterans with no previous history of opioid usage were put on opiate analgesics for a total of at least three months, and only two percent began abusing the drug. While in another study, six percent abused the drug, though it was noted that most of the abusers had used illicit drugs before their treatment (Pletcher, 2006). In the medical field, it is accepted that the likelihood for addiction greatly increases after a three-day usage of the drug; therefore, governor Rick Scott aided in the passing of law HB 21 that sets a three-day limitation on prescriptions used for acute pain, in an attempt to lessen the chances of addiction (Leon, 2018). Therefore, while addiction is a concern regarding these drugs, according to the evidence listed above, only a small amount of those using the drug are at risk of addiction. When it comes to pain relief, there is no equivalent to opiates (and synthetic opiates). Which is the reason for which they are a main ingredient in the some of the most common pain reducing medications used by hospitals, such as morphine. They play an important role in treating patients with acute severe pain, usually following trauma. According to Fields (2011): They are also used for patients with painful terminal diseases such as cancer. In these time-limited situations the efficacy of opiates is extensively documented and broadly accepted. In fact, their use has recently grown, in part because providing adequate pain relief is now considered an important standard of care and is required by law in some states. Though, it is important to note that he does distinguish between the types of pain that opiates should be used for, acute vs. chronic. He mentions that opiates should only be considered when it comes to acute pain, and should not be recommended for long-term chronic pain, as the chance of becoming addicted increases. In experiments involving animals subjected to opiates long-term, analgesic tolerance was observed in almost every case (Chang, 2007). This means that as the use of long-term opiates continues, it gradually decreases in effectiveness; this being another reason opioids should not be considered in the use of long-term care. There are substitutions that can be used in place of opiates, such as Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Corticosteroids, Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, Neurostimulators, etc. (, 2018). While these are alternatives, they do not have the same effects as opiates and do not provide the same amount of pain relief. The most common use for drugs that contain opiates are after a serious injury and provide relief to the patient. The research listed above is conclusive that while there are many alternative pain relievers, none have the same effectiveness as opiates; demonstrating their importance within the medical industry and for patient care. An important consideration for all medications are any side effects associated with them, with the subject at hand, it is extremely important to mention. The short-term side effects of opiate abuse include drowsiness, lethargy, paranoia, respiratory depression, and nausea. (, 2018) These are very unsettling symptoms that many patients experience and can severely impact daily functions and activities. While temporary side effects are concerning, when it comes to opiates, long-term effects have a looming presence. These include: abdominal distention and bloating, constipation, liver damage, brain damage, and forms of dependence. According to the CDC (2017), an estimated one out of five patients with non-caner pain or pain-related diagnoses are prescribed opioids. And according to these statistics, it is older adults (aged 40 or older) that are more likely to use these medications than the younger generations (CDC, 2017). This means that these drugs are directly impacting millions of Americans and could be causing harmful side effects impacting the daily lives of these individuals. This is an important distinction to make when it comes to opioids as when considering which medications to prescribe, side-effects are one of the most important choices in that decision process. Critics would argue that this is simply a part of all medications and that it should – and is – expected to occur. Mostly every type of medication in the world has side-effects and prevention of side-effects are nearly impossible, as these drugs are meant to modify the normal conditions of a patient’s system. The symptoms that are experienced with this medication are common with any type of pain medication prescribed by a doctor or those available over-the-counter. An example of this is one of the most common types of pain-relieving drugs – Aspirin. According to (2018): Aspirin is known for many side effects, some of the most common being (nausea, drowsiness, and headache); yet it is also known to cause serious side effects such as (black stools, blood within vomit or mucus, severe nausea or stomach pain, fever, swelling or pain, and hearing problems). Aspirin is one of the most generally accepted pain relievers accepted by the public since its creation in the 1899 and since then has become one of the most frequently sold painkillers. Indeed, while opiate side-effects are important to consider regarding usage and restrictions when compared to any other forms of medication, they are as commonplace as a painkiller you could purchase from Walmart. Lastly, one of the biggest concerns of opiates and usage is their rampant abuse that has increased in staggering numbers in the recent decade. First, we must understand how these drugs are obtained and used for illicit purposes. As with many things, the answer isn’t simple. In a SAMHSA report (the DAWN report, 2010) they found that while prescription abuse isn’t rare, it isn’t the biggest cause of abuse. The most common way of obtaining these drugs was through illegal means and less than 20% actually received them through doctor prescription. Nearly 70% of those abusing these drugs receive them in illegal ways. This is concerning considering the number of Americans that die on a daily basis from opioid abuse. The NIH (National Institute on Drug Abuse) reports that more than 115 people in the United States die from opioid overdose every day (NIH, 2018). This is a concerning number that illuminates the severity of this issue. The CDC also released a report in March of 2018 that examined the number of ED visits from July 2016 through September 2017 in fifty-two jurisdictions within 45 states and found that suspected opioid overdoses increased 30 percent. (CDC, 2018) This is a sharp increase that seems to be steadily increasing over time, what is the solution? There have been many efforts put in place to limit access to these drugs, as most abuse comes from 3rd party sources and reducing what is supplied to the public may be the most effective prevention; the DEA sets quotas on the number of opiate medications that can be manufactured within a year for this very reason. (DEA, 2016) Yet, there are other forms of prevention that local government can participate in to assist in this effort. The ICMA (2017) advocates the following policy efforts: Creating community coalitions to work together across sectors, developing ordinances and places for safe drug disposal, establishing drug diversion task forces, providing training for first responders in the use of naloxone (Narcan) for reducing opioid overdoses, using drug courts to fight opioid addiction and trafficking, creating referral programs through law enforcement agencies, and by building awareness about their state’s prescription drug monitoring program These are ways that we can actively fight against the abuse of these drugs while reducing the cases of overdose. In conclusion, the epidemic of opiates is one that should be addressed. Opiates play an important in the medical field and help billions across the world, making them a medical necessity. With an understanding of who is likely to get addicted to these drugs, and why, we can better help prevent cases of abuse. And while it is impossible to prevent these drugs from being circulated illicitly, putting policies in place that help work against it is an important step in the right direction.

Essay on Autism

Autism is a mental condition which comes around in the early stages of the childhood, it impairs the ability to communicate and interact. A developmental disorder you could say. In this paper you will be informed all about it. What to do if your child has it. How the treatment for it work. How it is diagnosed, just facts that you may not of ever known about and why this topic interests me and why I chose it. Parents can start to tell something is going on when their child it is characterized by social impairments, cognitive impairments, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. A person with Autism Spectrum Disorder may not respond to their name like they seem deaf, does not show interest in anything that should show a spark of light in a kid at the age that they are, does not use a child’s imagination, avoids eye contact, and wants to be alone. One may have trouble understanding, have no speech or delayed speech, gives unrelated answers to questions, gets upset by the littlest things, can also be very dangerous. Some symptoms of ASD can be hyperactivity, impulsivity, short attention span, aggression, self injury, meltdowns, sleeping or eating habits that are not the normal, mood or emotional reactions that are not normal, lack of fear or more fear, and unusual sleeping habits. A developmental screening is a test to tell if children are learning basic skills when they should. This test should be done regularly at different appointments for your child at the ages of 9 months, 18 months, and 24 or 30 months. More screening should be done if the child is at high risk for developmental delays due to preterm birth, low birth weight, having a sibling with it, or you see any signs of ASD or symptoms. Autism is treatable, not a hopeless condition. Some cases may seem worse than others and it may be depending on how long you waited to get treatment started. Treatment consists of how early you catch it and different kinds of therapies. Medications are a role in autism too. Boys are four times more likely to get autism than girls. It is the fastest growing developmental disorder yet the most underfunded. I hope this essay informed you more about autism then you probably already knew and hope you can keep an eye out for these symptoms in children at an earlier stage to maybe help the treatment process. Some people you could never even tell they have autism. I grew up with a kid that has it but nobody ever believes him when he tells them about it, it is not something he talks about much or flashes around. The other people you can tell by how they look that they have it. This is seriously something I think that children should be taught about in school and should not be taken lightly. Kids are so cruel nowadays and it does not help that lots of them do not know how to react when coming in contact with someone who has ASD.

A Misunderstood and Reckless Hero

In Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, Okonkwo is a manly, angry, prideful and stubborn man. He is lost in this idea of being a man and achieves respect and social status because of it. Okonkwo tries to prove himself to anyone as a manly figure in order for people to forget who his father is. His father, Unoka, was a very ‘free spirited man’ who was very known for his inconsistency and laziness that brought shame onto Okonkwo. Okonkwo wanted nothing to do with his father and carried hatred towards him everywhere. Okonkwo grew his perspective of manliness based on the dishonorable reputation his father was known for. Okonkwo needed to prove himself by not having any other emotion, but being angry and being strong. Okonkwo is well respected and is considered a hero in his village Umuofia. He “lay[s] the foundations of a prosperous future” by slowly and painfully working like “one possessed” in order to escape “his father’s contemptible life and shameful death.” Okonkwo, so “possessed” with escaping the lingering reputation of his father, does anything in his power to earn respect. He gains respect and status by building up his wealth and reputation, which he displays by hosting sardanapalian feasts, and constantly renovating his expansive compound. Okonkwo also shapes his fate through his intense masculinity. His masculinity is best shown by his unmatched fearlessness in battle. Both in war and in wrestling, Okonkwo exhibits unmatched skill and fearlessness. Naturally, these important traits grant him respect in the patriarchal society of Umuofia, furthering Okonkwo’s is own goal of attaining high social status. The zenith of Onkowo’s heroism is his relentless endeavor to become titled. Even when misfortune forces him into exile, Okonkwo still has resolute belief that he will regain flourish and achieve his ultimate goal: “Some of these losses were not irreparable. He was determined that his return should be marked by his people. He would return with a flourish, and regain the seven wasted years. … He saw himself taking the highest title in the land.” (pg. 171). Okonkwo’s confidence that he will flourish despite the near-catastrophe he has endured is beyond admirable. It signifies why he is so deserving of respect; he always has a clear focus on his goal, and perseveres through the challenges he faces. Onkowo’s heroism, which is displayed by his material wealth and noble status, is a testament to his dogged belief in his convictions. Okonkwo's fear of being perceived as weak tragically leads to him to be unnecessarily violent and excessively prideful. These two fatal flaws lead to Okonkwo’s own emotional isolation, and his inevitable downfall. Driven by the fear of being seen as weak and emasculated, Okonkwo exhibits hyper masculinity and rage. Although this behavior initially leads to success in the patriarchal society of Umofia, rage is his greatest bane: it masks his compassion and pusillanimity. Onkonkwo’s obsession to never appear feminine is driven to the extreme. He denies affection even to his own family, “never show[ing] any emotion openly, unless it be the emotion of anger. To [Okonkwo] show[ing] affection was a sign of weakness; the only thing worth demonstrating was strength.” (pg. 28). Okonkwo whose “whole life [is] dominated by fear, the fear of failure and of weakness.” (pg. 13) suppress his compassion in order to appear important and manly. Ironically this creates a stark juxtaposition between his own fear and his position as an alpha male. Rather than being masculine and courageous, Okonkwo just creates tension within his family and within himself. The pinnacle of this extreme hypermasculinity is when Okonkwo ignores the wisdom of the elder Ezeudu, and violently kills his “son” Ikamafuna: “As the man who had cleared his throat drew up and raised his machete, Okonkwo looked away. He had heard Ikamafuna cry “My father, they have killed me!” as he ran towards him. Dazed with fear, Okonkwo drew his machete and cut him down. He was afraid of being thought weak.” (pg. 61) Though in the end, Okonkwo kills Ikemefuna to display his masculinity, the tribe doesn’t view him as a warrior, rather they pity him. Okonkwo's violence towards his family is further shown when he violently beats his wife during the sacred week of peace. He walked back to his obi to await Ojiugo's return. And when she returned he beat her very heavily. In his anger he had forgotten that it was the Week of Peace. His first two wives ran out in great alarm pleading with him that it was the sacred week. But Okonkwo was not the man to stop beating somebody half-way through, not even for fear of a goddess. In an act of rash violence Okonkwo exerts his superiority. This act of male chauvinism not only defies religious order, it leads the Clan to question whether Okonkwo has the poise to lead effectively. While intending to appear strong, he is actually now looked down upon by the Clan. The very thing that Okonkwo fears most – to appear weak – has come true. Okonkwo’s hubris, the other major reason for his decline from heroism, is a tragic flaw that prevents Okonkwo from acknowledging his own deficits. Ironically, this excessive pride, which stems from his tenacity and success in Umuofia, is pivotal to his eventual downfall. Okonkwo epitomizes his hubris by chauvinistically denying that he played a part in his son’s conversion to Christianity: Okonkwo was popularly called the ‘Roaring Flame.’ As he looked into the log fire he recalled the name. He was a flaming fire. How then could he have begotten a son like Nwoye, degenerate and effeminate? Perhaps he was not his son. No! he could not be. His wife had played him false. He would teach her! But Nwoye resembled his grandfather, Unoka, who was Okonkwo’s father. He pushed the thought out of his mind. He, Okonkwo, was called a flaming fire. How could he have begotten a woman for a son? (17.26) Even though Okonkwo's own oppressive nature is what drives Nwoye away from his hyper masculine household, he refuses to believe that he could possibly be associated with his “degenerate” son. This chauvinistic denial of the obvious facts can be best classified in Freudian terms as a psychological projection. Okonkwo, concerned only with his own greatness, ascribes his own failures to his second wife, erroneously convicting her of “playing him false.” This forces Okonkwo into emotion isolation, oppressiveness and violence, in order to retain the illustrious image of himself. This rigidity, the inability to let go of his pride, is one of Okonkwo’s tragic flaws; he is unwilling to adapt to the changing society and dies the death of a warrior. With such adamant belief in his leadership and warrior-spirit, Okonkwo is driven to suicide as a means of controlling his own destiny. Okonkwo chooses to belligerently accept all of the potential ramifications of suicide, not out of fear, but rather to remain true to his idealistic self. Okonkwo’s unwavering belief in his warrior-sprit, even in the midst of invasive colonialism, is elucidated by Okika’s revealing speech: Our dead fathers are weeping because of the shameful sacrilege they are suffering and the abomination we have all seen with our eyes…Our fathers never dreamed of such a thing, they never killed their brothers. But a white man never came to them. So we must do what our fathers would never have done…We must root out this evil. Okonkwo,who is so inspired by the speech, kills the court messenger in order to try to start a civil war. However, Okonkwo stands alone. The rest of the tribe, unwilling to fight, cowers in fear while Okonkwo valiantly fights against the colonialist oppressors. Although this action could be perceived as reckless or rash, this interpretation could not be further from the truth. Okonkwo kills the messenger in order to stay true to his convictions and his culture. Tragically, the fact that his tribe never supports him, leaves Okonkwo with one option for freedom: suicide. Oberiake, accurately sees Okonkwo driven to suicide “That man was one of the greatest men in Umuofia. You drove him to kill himself; and now he will be buried like a dog”In the midst of an epoch of entropic change, paradigm shift in justice, splintering family ties, Okonkwo chooses to accept the ultimate consequences, social sin, and death, in order to retain his steadfast beliefs. The unfairness of the suicide has Obierika choking on his own words. The seemingly invincible hero has fallen so far from greatness only to succumb to the same shameful death he so diligently tried to avoid. In the end Okonkwo’s fate, his qi, never “affirms with his aspirations”. In the most definitive and pivotal moment of his life, Okonkwo fails. The epic transformation Okonkwo undergoes, the one that lets him let go of his fear, is never fully realized because of his death.

Understanding the Black Plague

The Black Death released its wrath on Florence, Italy in the year 1348, ghastly leaving a countless number of deaths in its place. Florence, Italy, an advanced city for this time era, attempted numerous ways to halt the spread of this contagion by “the cleansing of the city from many impurities by officials appointed for the purpose, the refusal of entrance to all sick folk, and the adoption of many precautions for the preservation of health” (Boccaccio, 2011). Alongside Florence, many other cities were impacted by a devastating epidemic, The Black Death. The Black Death is categorized into three cases of plague; Bubonic, Pneumonic, and Septicemic. While all three unleashed havoc on lives, the Bubonic Plague was the most commonly witnessed. Given the time and the era of the Black Death, medicine was not equipped enough to handle such a tragedy, though medical officials and healers used the knowledge available in search for answers. The Black Plague was something never before seen, first errupting in few boils along the groin or underarms, and eventually migrating into numerous boils, large and small, in other locations such as the thigh or arm. Diagnosis of the Bubonic Plague came from the eruption of these symptoms, although treatment for it was not created. Medicine was based on Greek physicians’ ancient work, namely Galen and Hippocrates. However, the Bubonic Plague was not apparent during their time, thus rendering the treatment for the disease. Physicians did not have the knowledge or resources to treat such an endemic, surrendering millions of lives to the plague. “Which maladies seemed to set entirely at naught both the art of the physician and the virtues of physic; indeed, whether it was that the disorder was of a nature to defy such treatment, or that the physicians were at fault–besides the qualified there was now a multitude both of men and of women who practised without having received the slightest tincture of medical science–and, being in ignorance of its source, failed to apply the proper remedies” (Boccaccio, 2011). The Bubonic Plague originated from the fleas off a rat, something that was not known until years after the plague struck. In this time, germs were not a known cause of disease, rather people saw illness and disease as a punishment from God. Physicians and citizens believed the source of this pestilence was “sent upon us mortals by God in His just wrath by way of retribution for our iniquities” (Boccaccio, 2011). Medieval medicine generally operated with the church in times of panic to locate origin and cause of epidemics. The church and citizens hoped to subdue the acrimony by using “humble supplications addressed to God” (Boccaccio, 2011). While medieval medicine fought with the Bubonic Plague, there were different roles for certain healers to perform. As the Black Death struck, it was the responsibility of the Church, physicians, and folk healers to aid the citizens in different ways. It was the job of the Church to provide support for the citizens during this devastating time. As a main part of most people’s lives, citizens initially turned to the church for answers. The Church was closely linked to medical practice, setting up hospitals in monasteries to care for the elderly and sick. These hospitals were often ran by religious orders with the help of monks to care for the ill. More so, it was the job of the Church to keep record of the census and population, however, as the death count rose quickly, the records became harder to keep. Physicians during this time were often volunteers, as they were at more risk of contracting the virus. However, it was believed that if a Plague Doctor dressed a certain way; a wide-brimmed black hat, long black overcoat, and a gas mask in the shape of a beak, they were protected from conception. It was the job of these doctors to visit victims suspected of having the disease in their homes to determine if they had been affected or not. Avicenna, an Islamic philosopher, wrote “Canon of Medicine” which became a great influence in western Europe during medieval times. This book became one of the main sources of medical knowledge in search for answers for the Black Plague, along with work from Galen and Hippocrates. However, the amount of doctors during this time was scarce, leaving local, or folk, healers as the only source for medical attention. These folk healers were people who had some medical knowledge, but were not professional practitioners. Folk healers used natural remedies, such as intoxicants and herbs, to create drugs or salves for the ill. As the plague raged on, all healers took some part in aiding citizens during the time of the Black Death. Diagnosing and treating an unfamiliar disease included in depth research and testing, both of which medical officials did not have when the Black Plague struck. Having mainly the knowledge of ancient philosophers to rely on, the Church and medical professionals were desperate to identify the outbreak that had consumed much of the Europe and Asia. Relying on the help of the Church, physicians, and folk healers during this time of devastation, citizens awaited the outcome of their path. Though healers used their highest amount of medical knowledge to seek answers and remedies to this pestilence, lives were plucked at the hands of the Black Plague.