The reasons for William Shakespeare creating such sinister character

Patton took a deep breath as he picked up the four mugs, thoughts bouncing like rubber balls in his head. The three other main sides were already sat on the couch, spread about as far from He made all but Logan and himself hot chocolate- Logan liking tea and (Despite the popular belief) Patton having a soft spot for coffee. He did hide the coffee grounds and creamer, but that was just because his friends had this sort of adorable image of him, and he didn’t want to ruin that! Especially with his adult-y taste buds. All three of them looked at him when he started to set down the drinks, desperate for something to distract them from the awkward silence. It really did not help. The only difference was that Patton had been added to the group of uncomfortable sides and now they had the excuse of having drinks to stop talking. “So…” Roman started. “Today has certainly been…” “A mess?” Virgil filled in for him, resting his head in the palm of his hand. The prince noticeably cringed, but he tried his best to keep up a pleasant smile when he spoke, which Patton appreciated. “I would have gone for interesting.” Surprisingly, Logan was the first to dismiss everything, scoffing. “Who are we all kidding? This has been a complete disaster. Two accidental confessions-” He glared at Virgil and Roman pointedly, and they each shrunk back. “Patton, you broke Virgil’s nose, for Kant’s sake!” “I really didn’t mean to.” He put on his cat hood so he could hide his face, doing his best to avoid looking at Virgil’s nose. Logan had taken care of the injury for the most part, making quick work with a small pad and medical tape. The bruise had turned purple already, but you could barely see it from behind the white bandage. “We need to talk about this. I am sure that Roman and I could take the lead here, as Virgil and Patton have a bit more extreme of an issue.” Logan straightened, and other than the constant adjusting of his tie and glasses, you wouldn’t be able to tell he was nervous at all. Roman, on the other hand, looked a lot more panicked. “We will?” The comment got a sharp look from the intellectual side. “I mean, we will! Yes! Wonder…ful.” Roman sighed, messing with the bright sash around his shoulder. A small, fond smile creeped it’s way onto Logan’s face, but he stamped it out quickly with a cough. “I am sure you are aware of certain affections that I have for you due to…” He glanced at Virgil from the corner of his eye, who waved sheepishly. “Recent events. I do not wish for this to change your view of me now that you know. Of course, it would be ideal if you returned the previously stated affections-” Roman took Logan’s hand in his own, effectively shutting him up. Patton squealed happily as Roman pulled Logan flush against his chest. “You even talk about love like it’s a business deal. It is… strangely endearing, you know?” “No, I didn’t!” He squirmed a little in his arms. “I will- have to do that more often, then.” Logan let out a surprised cry when Prince left a kiss on his forehead. “I would love to be your knight in shining armor if you so wish.” The grin on his face was wider than probably considered healthy, and it was shining white. It almost sparkled like they did in the movies. Virgil clapped, ruining their romantic moment by making a fake vomiting noise. “Alright! I think we’re done here so I’m just going to go are we good I think we’re good byeeee!” his words were strung together as he tried to stand and escape, but Logan let out a low, “Virgil.” That alone made him groan and sit back down, even if he didn’t have to. Patton took a sharp breath at the bad reaction. Did he really not want to do this that badly?

Though the reasons for William Shakespeare creating such sinister character as Iago is unknown, it can be seen as commentary on the inexplicable evil that exists in the world and how good and innocent men can fall victim to it. In Othello, Shakespeare creates a psychopathic character named Iago that visits the extremes of man’s depravity, fueled by sordid emotions whilst adhering to no morality who commits reprehensible and inscrutable actions often with little to no reason other than his own pleasure of manipulation of innocents and blind vengeance. Roderigo, upon Othello’s marriage with Desdemona, is blinded by his jealousy which Iago wields to manipulate him in promise of his own chance at Desdemona; however, it is readily apparent that Iago, in actuality, holds no concern for Roderigo and instead only uses him for his own purpose and pleasure, showing how psychopaths manipulate everyone they encounter. Though it seems Iago has developed friendship with Roderigo on common grounds of getting revenge against the Moor, this sentiment is quickly dismissed by Iago ridiculing him behind his back and entertaining himself as if he “would time expend with such snipe, /if not for my sport and profit” (1.3.376-377), highlighting early into the play just what kind of man Iago is before the audience fully see the extent of Iago’s deceptiveness. Capitalizing on Roderigo’s jealousy and naivete, Iago is able to exploit him as a pawn purely for his revenge against Othello and to fill his own pocket in the meantime. Later into the play, Roderigo gets a sense of Iago’s manipulation and goes to confront him, only for Iago to sway him once more by exploiting his weakness, promising “If thou the next night followings enjoy not Desde-/ mona, take me from this world with treachery and/ Devise engines for my life” (4.2.215-217), again, using Roderigo’s blind want of Desdemona for his own use, this time going so far as to convincing Roderigo to kill Cassio by “knocking out his brains” (4.2.230) in order to prevent Othello and Desdemona from leaving Cyprus. Through this action, Roderigo retains his chance and Desdemona; moreover, Iago upholds his promise to kill Cassio, but does so through a proxy to which all blame would go in order to raise no suspicion, showing how Iago considered Roderigo a dispensable tool for his retribution and how quickly Iago was ready to dispose of him. The same relationship of feigned interest and ultimate betrayal parallels that of Iago and Cassio, establishing that Iago has no true allegiance but to himself. Although Iago seems incapable of real emotion, his jealousy is what fueled him to destroy the life of Cassio by exploiting his weakness, because of his belief that he was more deserving of the title of lieutenant instead of Cassio, to which the title went to instead, following Shakespeare’s theme of jealousy, showing that not only does Iago exploit the jealousy of others, he himself is dictated by it. He first show his jealousy of Cassio when he talks of his military career as “Mere prattle without practice, / Is all his soldiership” (1.1.23-24), saying that he is undeserving of the title of lieutenant due to the fact that Cassio has never been a military leader before, unlike Iago who has been in charge of a multitude of deployments and is therefore an obvious better pick for the rank. Although his jealousy played a big part of his intention to undermine Cassio, given his pattern of apathy and underhandedness, it is almost certain that Iago would have ruined Cassio’s life regardless of his emotions towards him. When planning Cassio’s downfall, Iago mentions that “He hath a person and a smooth dispose/ To be suspected — framed to make women false” (1.3.388-389), turning his closeness with Emilia and Desdemona against him, enforcing the idea that Iago would have destroyed Cassio’s life regardless of his connection with him seeing as how he puts his own wife in the cross hairs in order to seek vengeance through an innocent woman. Furthering Iago’s display of immorality, he is shown exploiting Cassio through his friendship of Emilia and Desdemona, showing the extent of his psychopathy as he jumps at any chance to seek revenge on both Cassio and Othello with absolutely no repentance for any possible repercussions to those around him. Although Iago may be jealous of Cassio receiving the rank of lieutenant, the jealousy also translates to anger towards Othello for overlooking him. The ultimate goal of all Iago’s actions was the complete destruction of Othello’s life, which comes to fruition as Othello realizes his mistakes in light of the recent revelation of the extent of Iago’s deceptiveness and unscrupulousness in which everyone becomes privy to the shocking level Iago is willing to sink to, exploring his complete lack of morality and empathy as he indirectly killed four people and has to be subjected to torture before he will even suggest a motive. As touched on previously, Iago hates Othello for overlooking him in promotion of rank; however, another reasoning for Iago’s indignance towards the Moor arises when “it is thought abroad, that ‘twixt my sheets,/as done my office” (1.3.377.379). Iago’s psychopathy is never more apparent with this display of a burst of irrational anger and jealousy: he predicates his entire endeavor to destroy the lives of Othello and those around him based on a baseless accusation. The amalgamation of all his reasons for vengeance shows that he too is controlled by jealousy, and his evil intentions reveal the depth of his villainy unfounded by rationality, showing that Iago operates without reason. Though Iago does have reason to harbor hatred towards Othello, he had no reason to go so far as he did, and despite any attempts to force reason for his actions, at the end, the series of events where Othello tells Iago that “If that thou be’st a devil, I cannot kill thee.” (5.2.283) then proceeds to stab him, only for Iago to respond, “I bleed, sir, but not killed” (5.2.284) definitively shows the audience that Iago will never rationalize his actions no matter how much it is tried. The comparison of Iago to the devil, along with showing that he is unwavering in his stance on silence when he tells Othello, “Demand me nothing. What you know, you know. / From this time forth I never will speak word” (5.2.299-300), shows the audience that Iago would never be able to be forced into saying and thus will never rationalize his actions to anyone. The play of Othello introduced a physical manifestation of unscrupulous immorality through Iago with his psychopathic tendency of manipulation without second thought. Through the development of Iago’s plan to sabotage Othello’s life by any means necessary, the audience is exposed to the extreme depths he goes to with his displays of analyzing the weaknesses of each characters then exploiting it. The monstrous nature of Iago, that of remorseless cruelty fueled by his own jealousy of Cassio and Othello, goes beyond Shakespeare’s theme of the play which is that good men can be blinded by the nature of jealousy, and instead shows that everyone, good or bad, can be manipulated by the nature of man.

Pi’s Influential Symbols of Survival Topic: Choose three important, rich symbols from the novel and discuss what their inclusion in the tale adds to the overall meaning of the book. What does each symbol represent? How do they each contribute to our understanding of the text? Do they add a positive or negative element to the story? The incredibly outstanding novel Life of Pi, written by Yann Martel is “a story that will make you believe in god”. The main character; Piscine Molitor Patel, known to all as Pi, takes you through the story of his life as a child before and after becoming lost in the Pacific Ocean. Starting off with a slight backstory, Life of Pi immediately gains the reader’s attention and comfort by shining light on Pi’s life. His family operated the Pondicherry Zoo, however due to an appalling government system they decided to emigrate to Canada via ship along with all the zoo animals in hopes of a more prosperous and rewarding future. One night, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a massive storm struck and the Tsimtsum sank causing Pi’s family and majority of the animals to drown. Pi, Richard Parker, a hyena, a zebra and an orangutan named Orange Juice all managed to escape on a lifeboat. One by one, the survivors on the lifeboat were killed and eaten except for Richard Parker; the Royal Bengal Tiger and Piscine. Piscine’s strong belief in God coupled with Richard Parker’s companionship guided them through the tremendous struggle of surviving 227 days in the Pacific Ocean. The three major and most influential symbols I found in the book were the lifeboat, water, and of course Richard Parker which all symbolize the three faiths of Pi. Genuine love, meaning and hope have the capability to smoothen out rough times in life, making the challenging journey life easier to live through. An object dipped into a loving memory, a place associated with a grieving emotion, or perhaps even an item regarded as the foundation of a concept are all prime showcases of how mundane components of life can drastically change to act as vital symbols. Surviving 227 days with a limited supply of food and water is a struggle. Luckily, Piscine was not alone. Piscine had Richard Parker as his companion. At first, Piscine was afraid of Richard Parker devouring him. As the time passed by, Piscine slowly ended up training Richard Parker with the help of an instruction book that was in the lifeboat. He used several methods, some worked and some did not. As a part of surviving with a Royal Bengal Tiger, Piscine made sure that Richard Parker knew which side of the boat was his and which part was Piscine’s. Richard Parker is a very rich symbol in this novel. Richard Parker gave Pi hope and faith that they would survive. Richard Parker can possibly have different meanings to different people such as, Richard Parker is survival and Richard Parker is god. To Piscine, Richard Parker was believing that he would survive, he was a token that god sent so Pi would not be lonely and most importantly, Richard Parker was a friend. In the quote “’I love you!’ The words burst out pure and unfettered, infinite. The feeling flooded my chest. ‘Truly I do. I love you, Richard Parker…Don’t give up, Richard Parker, don’t give up. I’ll get you to land, I promise, I promise.” In this quote it shows that Pi had motivation. His motivation was to get himself and Richard Parker onto land and survive. It shows the true feelings that Pi has for Richard Parker. Richard Parker not only represents hope and faith but also represents Pi’s inner animalistic instincts. Pi learns from Richard Parker how to survive. At the beginning when Richard Parker eats the rat and then the hyena, Pi subconsciously realizes that he must be like Richard Parker and do anything to survive. Richard Parker contributes to the text because he in one of the main characters and a major interest that the readers have in the novel. In the quote “Richard Parker, it’s over. We have survived. Can you believe it? I owe you more gratitude than I can express. I couldn’t have done it without you. . . .Thank you for saving my life” (317). He is grateful that they have survived and he is grateful to Richard Parker for being at his side through the horrible time. Pi is overwhelmed and the only one there to take in all of his happiness is Richard Parker. Richard Parker definitely adds a positive element to this story. He adds intrigue and suspense because the reader never knows what Richard Parker will do. The readers are anxious to know more about him and if him and Pi will start getting along. Water is an important part of Pi’s whole life, it’s where he got his name from. He was named after a swimming pool, an astonishing swimming pool his Mamaji had visited in France named “Piscine Molitor”. Pi’s Mamaji is a large impact on how Pi survived in the Ocean because his Mamaji taught him how to swim, Pi’s father did not know how to swim. The beautiful body of water: the Pacific Ocean is where Pi and Richard Parker floated and managed to survive for 227 days. The water represents Pi’s subconscious mind and how he is not able to escape it, although he survives, it shows how complex the subconscious mind s and how hard escaping it is. The literary device of irony is shown in this symbol. Being lost in the Pacific Ocean surrounded by nothing but water, Pi and Richard Parker still had nothing to drink. In the quote “Memory is an ocean and he bobs on its surface,” there is another literary device, in this quote it is a metaphor. This quote is saying that if memory is as vast as an Ocean, the person does not want to think too much about those memories. An analogy representing the human consciousness is the iceberg. The tip of the iceberg is what we can see but there is much more under there in the sea. With a close analysis of the novel you can make the prediction that Richard Parker and the Ocean are very similar. Both Richard Parker and the Ocean are unpredictable but they are both reasons to why Pi survived. Without the water moving Pi to Mexico he would not have safely landed and without Richard Parker, Pi would not have made it 227 days alone on the Ocean. While the ocean provides Pi’s food and water, the water is still his enemy. Drinking the seawater is very dangerous and Pi knows this well. The water contributes to our understanding of the text because it symbolized clearly how significant the water is in this novel. How it went from Pi’s name and him growing up to him surviving in the Pacific Ocean. The water adds a negative element to the story, I say this because the water is unpredictable and the reason of the Tsimtsum sinking which resulted in the whole disaster of Pi’s survival in the Ocean. In conclusion, the various symbols that were showcased in this marvellous novel such as the lifeboat, the ocean and the stunning Richard Parker have an enormous amount of meaning in this very well written piece of literature. Without the lifeboat, Piscine would not have made it to Mexico, without the water, Piscine would not have had a way to get to Mexico and most importantly, without a companion like Richard Parker, Piscine most definitely would not have learned from Richard Parker’s tactics of survival and survived himself. This novel evidently shows that our survival depends on the daily tireless use of an infinite amount of objects, yet their importance and significance only comes into light when they grow to represent an emotion, a memory, a concept; when they become a symbol. Last but not least we have the lifeboat. The lifeboat represents a zoo. A zoo meaning that in the lifeboat, Richard Parker just like any animal at a zoo has a specific time that they are fed at and on the lifeboat this is controlled by Pi because he is the main supplier. The lifeboat also represents a zoo because Pi and Richard Parker have their own designated zones. The lifeboat represents their only mode of transportation, a major key of surviving and finding land. The lifeboat is the holder of their main supplies to survival such as food and water and of course companionship. In the quote “There was not a shadow of doubt about the matter, to leave the lifeboat meant certain death.” It is evident that Pi knows the value of the lifeboat and how meaningful it is. In the end of the novel when Pi has reached Mexico, he makes sure the lifeboat is still with him to show the appreciation and importance of it. I am certain that the lifeboat adds a positive element to this story because the lifeboat represents all good things. The lifeboat adds a nice contribution to our understanding of the text. It is a simple yet complex symbol that if analyzed thoroughly, the reader will understand the true meaning and importance of the lifeboat.

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